International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal,
In the paper, we show that there are two types of gravitational force. The axial Newton force of gravity, focussed on the primary mass, and also the circumferential Prandtl adjunct force of gravity, which derives from the assembly of masses other than the primary mass.
The Newton force occurs in a stress-free planetary environment, and the Prandtl force, which is proportional to the square of van Karman’s constant () is a result of the inter-planetary stresses which occur due to the formation of the planets. In the planetary system the Prandtl force is much smaller in magnitude than the Newton force, but in the universe it is much greater than the Newton force due to any primary mass.
The Newton force gives us, not only the law of gravity, but also the basic structure of the planetary system, for which, we show that the product of the annular density, , and the radius , is a constant, as is demonstrated by the orbital properties of the planets.
On the other hand, the Prandtl force is much greater than the Newton force in the Einstein model for the universe due to its infinitely greater mass in comparison with any Newton primary mass. This axiom applied in Newton’s theory of gravity leads directly to Einstein’s famous law, , where is energy, is mass, and is the speed of light, which is a constant, and also to a companion law for torque, , where in which is the standard deviation of the circumferential Prandtl force.
In the numerical evaluations, we use the consensus experimental value () throughout.