With reference to Stoney scale, Wien’s displacement law and considering a light speed rotating black hole universe, in this letter, an attempt is made to estimate cosmic expansion rate, galactic dark matter, galactic flat rotation speeds and galactic radii. It can be appealed that, as ‘spin’ is a basic property of quantum mechanics, from the subject point of quantum gravity, universe must have ‘rotation’. If it is assumed that, universe is a ‘growing black hole’, it is quite natural to expect ‘cosmic rotation’. Based on the proposed assumptions, cosmic radius seems to be shortened by a factor of 148 and cosmic age seems to be shortened by a factor of 147. Independent of the galactic redshift data and its controversial analysis and by continuously measuring the rate of decrease in current cosmic temperature, future cosmic expansion rate can be understood confidently.
The study of the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem (ER3BP) in our present work considered the coordinates taken oblateness up to zonal harmonics for Gliese 667 and Sirius systems. The coordinates considered here is termed; the out-of-plane libration points. The out-of-plane libration points is birthed from the existence of the three-dimsional Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP). Its points or positions are denoted by . These positions ( ) lie in the plane almost directly above and below the center of each oblate primary. We have computed numerically the positions of the out-of-plane libration points and its stability to show the effects of the parameters involved. With the help of the software MATHEMATICA, we have observed the topologies of Zero-Velocity Curves (ZVC) for the stated problem. It is found that, the positions of the out-of-plane libration points for the binary systems: Gliese 667 and Sirius seems to respectively move away and closer in the absence and present of oblateness. For the stability, it is evidenced that, for each set of values, there exist at least one complex root with positive real part and hence in Lyapunov sense, the stability of the out-of-plane libration points are unstable for the binary systems mentioned above.
In this paper, equilibrium points and stability in the photogravitational restricted three-body problem (R3BP) with oblateness under a heterogeneous spheroid have been examined when the bigger primary is a radiating mass and the smaller one is a mass having three layers with different densities while the infinitesimal mass is an oblate spheroid. It is seen that for some values of oblateness of the infinitesimal mass, radiation pressure of the bigger primary, heterogeneity of the smaller and mass parameter , there exist up to five collinear equilibrium points all of which are unstable while a pair of triangular points exist and are stable when , where is the mass parameter defined by the radiation pressure, oblateness and heterogeneity.
When there is a temporary disturbance of earth’s magnetosphere, then a geomagnetic storm (or solar storm) has occurred. It is caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of a magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic fields. The interaction of Interplanetary Magnetic Fields (IMF) of the sun  with the earth’s magnetic fields in opposite directions is known as magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection (often referred as "reconnection") is the breaking and reconnecting of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in plasma at a neutral point which leads to converting the magnetic field energy into plasma kinetic and thermal energy. It occurs either in the day-time (day reconnection) where the sunward convection near the polar cusps allows energised particles to be transmitted earthward or night-time (tail reconnection) where particles are injected into the magnetosphere, thus releasing stored energy in the form of auroral substorms. A geostorm can be determined by changes in the Disturbance-storm time (Dst) Sokolov . However not all geomagnetic storms have an initial phase and not all sudden increases in Dst or SYM-H are followed by a geomagnetic storm. This paper attempts to determine when the magnetic reconnection occurs in the solar cycle 24 considering a low activity year 2009 and a high activity year 2012. We analysed 39 and 202 geomagnetic storms in 2009 and 2012 respectively considering the Dst indices and IMF Bz values of each month obtained from the OMNIWeb database. Our results showed that storms were frequent and intense at high levels of solar activity due to the frequent occurrence of CMEs and ICMEs in the year 2012 than in the year 2009 which occurred in 10% and 45% of days in the year 2009 and 2012 respectively. This study also revealed that negative Bz occurrences were 47.54% and 52.18% of Bz occurrences in 2009 and 2012 respectively. Thus, the more intense the geostorms, the more Bz would go south and the more magnetic reconnection and subsequently auroral substorms which can increase radiation doses for occupants of transpolar flights, disruption of shortwave radio communications, distortion of compass readings in polar regions, failure of electrical transmission lines, increased corrosion in long pipelines, anomalies in the operations of communications satellites, and potentially lethal doses of radiation for astronauts in interplanetary spacecraft.
This paper explores effect of perturbing forces on periodic orbits generated by the triangular equilibrium points of the restricted three-body problem taking into account small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces when the infinitesimal mass is an oblate spheroid and the central binary is two radiating oblate stars surrounded by circular cluster of materials. We compute explicitly expressions for the frequency, angle of rotation of the principal axis, eccentricity and lengths of semi-major and minor axes of the orbits. Since some facts are not directly observable from the analytic solutions, numerical evidences are provided to analyze the structure and effect of each perturbing forces on the elements of the orbits. Among these, it is seen that the presence of cluster of materials reduces lengths of the semi-axes and is the only force that reduces the eccentricity while radiation pressure and oblateness of the primary star have same effect on the structure of the orbits. Our study has relevance in the long-term motion of planets in binary systems, where planets have masses infinitesimally small. A question of celestial mechanics is how long can the triangular equilibrium points keep the infinitesimal mass in orbit from escaping? The determination of ranges of semi-major axis taking into account the perturbing forces may help to know if body is likely to remain or escape. It is seen that under combined effect of radiation, perturbations, oblateness and cluster of materials, the period, angle of rotation, eccentricity and length of semi-major axis all increases. Consequently, the infinitesimal mass is likely to escape in this case. However, with increasing accumulation of materials, the departure of the infinitesimal mass in orbit away from the vicinity of triangular equilibrium points is unlikely as it will override other perturbing forces and reduce the length of the semi-major axis.