Determination of Magnetic Reconnections in a Low and a High Activity Year
International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal,
When there is a temporary disturbance of earth’s magnetosphere, then a geomagnetic storm (or solar storm) has occurred. It is caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of a magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic fields. The interaction of Interplanetary Magnetic Fields (IMF) of the sun  with the earth’s magnetic fields in opposite directions is known as magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection (often referred as "reconnection") is the breaking and reconnecting of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in plasma at a neutral point which leads to converting the magnetic field energy into plasma kinetic and thermal energy. It occurs either in the day-time (day reconnection) where the sunward convection near the polar cusps allows energised particles to be transmitted earthward or night-time (tail reconnection) where particles are injected into the magnetosphere, thus releasing stored energy in the form of auroral substorms. A geostorm can be determined by changes in the Disturbance-storm time (Dst) Sokolov . However not all geomagnetic storms have an initial phase and not all sudden increases in Dst or SYM-H are followed by a geomagnetic storm. This paper attempts to determine when the magnetic reconnection occurs in the solar cycle 24 considering a low activity year 2009 and a high activity year 2012. We analysed 39 and 202 geomagnetic storms in 2009 and 2012 respectively considering the Dst indices and IMF Bz values of each month obtained from the OMNIWeb database. Our results showed that storms were frequent and intense at high levels of solar activity due to the frequent occurrence of CMEs and ICMEs in the year 2012 than in the year 2009 which occurred in 10% and 45% of days in the year 2009 and 2012 respectively. This study also revealed that negative Bz occurrences were 47.54% and 52.18% of Bz occurrences in 2009 and 2012 respectively. Thus, the more intense the geostorms, the more Bz would go south and the more magnetic reconnection and subsequently auroral substorms which can increase radiation doses for occupants of transpolar flights, disruption of shortwave radio communications, distortion of compass readings in polar regions, failure of electrical transmission lines, increased corrosion in long pipelines, anomalies in the operations of communications satellites, and potentially lethal doses of radiation for astronauts in interplanetary spacecraft.
- Interplanetary magnetic fields
- solar cycle 24
- disrupt radio communications
- magnetic reconnection
How to Cite
[accessed Dec 28 2020].
Sokolov SN. Magnetic storms and their effects in the lower ionosphere: Differences in storms of various types. Geomagn. Aeron. 2011;51:741–752. Available:https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016793211050124
Hines P, Apt J, Talukdar S. Trends in the history of large blackouts in the United States. Presented at the Power and Energy Society General Meeting − Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE, July 20-24, 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, New Jersey; 2008.
Kirkham H, Makarov YV, Dagle JE, DeSteese JG, Elizondo MA, Diao R. Geomagnetic storms and long-term impacts on power systems. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, 99352. Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 (PNNL-21033) in December 2011; 2011.
Boteler DH. Space weather effects on power systems, in space weather, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 25, edited by P. Song, H. J. Singer, and G. L. Siscoe, AGU, Washington, D. C. 2001;347–352.
Love JJ, Rigler EJ, Pulkkinen A, Balch CC. Magnetic storms and induction hazards, Eos Trans. AGU. 2014;95(48):445–452.
Kappenman JG. Storm sudden commencement events and the associated geomagnetically induced current risks to ground‐based systems at low‐latitude and midlatitude locations, Space Weather. 2003;1(3):1016.
Kappenman J. Geomagnetic storms and their impacts on the U.S. Power Grid. Published by Metatech Corporation 358 S. Fairview Ave., Suite E Goleta, CA 93117 January 2010. Prepared for Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 2010.
Ngwira CM, Pulkkinen A, Wilder FD, Crowley G. Extended study of extreme geoelectric field event scenarios for geomagnetically induced current applications, Space Weather. 2013;11:121–131.
Gonzalez WD, Tsurutani BT. Criteria of interplanetary parameters causing intense geomagnetic storms (Dst<-100nT). Planet Space Sci. 1987;35:1101-1109.
Chao JK. Steepening of nonlinear waves in the solar wind, J. of Geophys. Res. 1973;78:5411-5424.
Bravo S. The forecasting of intense geomagnetic storms, GeofisicaInternacional. 1999;36: 127-135.
Gosling JT, McComas DJ. Field line draping about fast coronal mass ejecta: A source of strong out-of-the-ecliptic interplanetary magnetic fields, Geophys. Res. Lett. 1987;14:355-358.
Akasofu SI. Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere, Space Sci. Rev. 1981;28:111.
Tsurutani BT, Russell CT, King JH, Zwickl RJ, Lin RP. A Kinky Heliospheric current sheath: Causes of the CDAW6 Substorms, Geophys. Res. Lett. 1984;11:339.
Tang F, Akasofu SI, Smith E, Tsurutani B. Magnetic fields on the sun and the north-south component of transient variations of the interplanetary magnetic field at 1 AU, J. Geophys. Res., 1985;90:2703-2712.
Tsurutani BT, Ho CM, Arballo JK, Goldstein BE, Balogh A. Large amplitude IMF fluctuations in co-rotating interaction regions: Ulysses at midlatitudes, Geophys. Res.Lett. 1995;22:3397.
Chian ACL, Borotto FA, Gonzalez WD. Alfven intermittent turbulence driven by temporal chaos, Ap. J. 1998;505:993-998.
Wu Chin-Chun, Dryer M. Predicting the initial IMF Bz polarity's change at 1 AU caused by shocks that precede coronal mass ejections, Geophys. Res. Lett. 1996;23:1709-1712.
Wu Chin-Chun, Dryer M. Three-dimensional MHD simulation of interplanetary magnetic field changes at 1AU caused by a simulated solar disturbance and a tilted heliospheric current/plasma sheet, Sol. Phys. 1997;173:391-408.
Hoeksema JT, Zhao X. Prediction of magnetic orientation in driver gas associated -Bz events. J. Geophys. Res. 1992;97:3151-3156.
Chao JK, Chen HH. Prediction of southward IMF Bz, American Geosphysical Union. 2001;125:183-189.
Sean McCloat. What is magnetic field strength and “Bz” have to do with the aurora? Aurorasaurus; 2015.
Potemra TA ed. Magnetospheric currents, American geophysical union, Washington, D.C. Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest. 1983;4(4).
Parker EN. The Solar-Flare Phenomenon and the Theory of Reconnection and Annihiliation of Magnetic Fields. Astrophysical Journal Supplement, vol. 8, p.177 (1963). doi: 10.1086/190087
Christoph L, Yasuhito N. Kinematic models of the interplanetary magnetic field. Ann. Geophys., 37, 299–314, 2019 https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-37-299-2019
Ana-Maria Piso (2009). The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (Parker Spiral).
Wolfram Demonstrations Project
Yihua Zheng. Space weather in the magnetosphere, SW REDI Engineers. 2014;28
Rajaram PK. Evolution of Dst and auroral indices during some severe geomagnetic storms. Published on Rev. Bras. Geof. São Paulo Apr./June 2009. Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. 2009;27(2).
Print version ISSN 0102-261X. Retrieved on 12 January 2021 from Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-261X2009000200001
Dungey James W. Interplanetary magnetic field and the auroral zones, Phys. Rev. Letters. 1961;6:47-48.
Burton Rande K, McPherron RL, Russell CT. An empirical relationship between interplanetary conditions and Dst, J. Geophys. Res. 1975;80:4204-4214.
Zhang J, Richardson IG, Webb DF, Gopalswamy N, Huttunen E, Kasper JC. Solar and interplanetary sources of major geomagnetic storms (Dst < −100 nT) during 1996–2005. J Geophys Res. 2007;112:A10102.
Gopalswamy N, Yashiro S, Michalek G, Xie H, Lepping RP, Howard RA. Solar source of the largest geomagnetic storm of cycle 23. Geophys Res Lett. 2005;32:L12S09. DOI:10.1029/2004GL021639
Richardson IG, Cliver EW, Cane HV. Sources of geomagnetic storms for solar minimum and maximum conditions during 1972–2000. Geophys Res Lett. 2001;28:13. DOI:10.1029/2001GL013052
Tulasiram S, Liu CH, Su SY. Periodic solar wind forcing due to recurrent coronal holes during 1996–2009 and its impact on Earth’s geomagnetic and ionospheric properties during the extreme solar minimum. J Geophys Res. 2010;115:A12340.
Cramer WD, Turner NE, Fok MC, Buzulukova NY. Effects of different geomagnetic storm drivers on the ring current: CRCM results. J Geophys Res; 2013.
Moore TE, Collier MR, Burch JL, Chornay DJ, Fuselier SA, Ghielmetti AG, Giles BL, Hamilton DC, Herrero FA, Keller JW, Ogilvie KW, Peko BL, Quinn JM, Stephen TM, Wilson GR, Wurz P. (2001). Low energy neutral atoms in the magnetosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 28(6), 1143–1146. doi:10.1029/2000gl012500
Fairfield Donald H, Lawrence G, Cahill Jr. Transition region magnetic field and polar magnetic disturbances, J. Geophys. Res. 1966;71:155-169.
Fairfield Donald H. Polar magnetic disturbances and the interplanetary magnetic field, Space Research VIII. 1967;107-119.
Slavin A, James Edward J, Smith David G, Sibeck Daniel N, Baker Ronald D, Zwickl. An ISEE 3 study of the average and substorm conditions in the distant magnetotail, J. Geophys. Res., 1985;90(10):875-10:895.
Abstract View: 0 times
PDF Download: 0 times